Discover TBS professor Timo Mandler’s point of view on building brands in markets that have reached the post-globalization stage.
Consumers in Western markets are increasingly critical towards globalization and re-embrace local values. Companies thus must decide whether to continue to pursue global branding strategies and/or rejuvenate local branding strategies. To explore the implications of market globalization for consumer preferences, we use signaling theory to investigate the role of perceived brand globalness and localness as signals of brand credibility, related downstream effects and boundary conditions, across two countries with differing levels of globalization. In globalized markets, brand globalness is a weaker signal of brand credibility than brand localness, whereas in globalizing markets, the two signals are of equal importance.
[su_pullquote align=”right”]By Camilla BARBAROSSA[/su_pullquote]
In recent years, international environmental policy debates have increasingly identified household consumption in industrial countries as one of the main causes of environmental problems. In most countries, household consumption over the lifecycle of products accounts for more than 60% of all environmental impacts of consumption.
In this context, the role of purchasing eco-friendly products to reduce consumers’ environmental footprint has recently been addressed, especially for products that are purchased on a regular basis, such as eco-friendly tissue paper products, biodegradable detergents, and substitutes of over-packaged and plastic products.
Policy makers and non-governmental organizations have developed policies (e.g., EU’s Action Plan) and pro-environmental behavior campaigns (e.g., WWF’s ‘Don’t Flush Tiger Forests’) to promote the purchasing of eco-friendly alternatives in the market. However, the current market shares of eco-friendly products are still fairly low.
To enhance the effectiveness of policies and social marketing campaigns and to stimulate the diffusion of eco-friendly products in the market, the achievement of two specific goals is needed: first, to better understand the factors that stimulate and prevent consumers from purchasing eco-friendly goods; and, second, to assess whether these factors may vary across different consumer segments. This knowledge is essential to develop more effective policies and marketing strategies tailored for different population segments that vary according to specific characteristics (e.g., environmental commitment).
A recent research that I have conducted with Patrick De Pelsmacker from University of Antwerp addresses these issues. First, we developed a model that determines what stimulates and prevents consumers from purchasing eco-friendly products while grocery shopping. Second, we compared this model between two different consumer segments: ‘green’ consumers (that is, consumers who already engage in pro-environmental behaviors – such as recycling, reducing household waste – for environmental reasons) versus ‘non-green’ consumers (that is, consumers who are honestly unengaged in pro-environmental behaviors).
The study involved 926 adult respondents responsible for grocery shopping in the household. Specifically, the sample was composed of 453 ‘green’ consumers and 473 ‘non-green’ consumers. All the respondents answered a questionnaire including a series of questions assessing the extent to which a number of factors may positively or negatively influence their decision of purchasing eco-friendly goods while grocery shopping. The respondents also answered questions about their intentions to buy eco-friendly products and their eco-friendly products actual purchase behavior.
Results and implications
The results of our survey revealed remarkable differences in the willingness to buy eco-friendly products between ‘green’ and ‘non-green’ consumers. As expected, ‘green’ consumers are more willing to purchase eco-friendly products than ‘non-green’ consumers. Additionally, our results indicated that the two consumer groups are influenced by different factors in purchasing eco-friendly alternatives. For example, ‘green’ consumers may be willing to purchase eco-friendly products because they want to project a desired, favorable impression of themselves on relevant others. This is not the case for ‘non-green’ consumers.
‘Green’ consumers seem to be concerned about the impact of their consumption choices on the natural environment. This environmental concern drives them to opt for eco-friendly alternatives. Conversely, ‘non-green’ consumer are less prone to take the footprint of their individual actions into account when grocery shopping.
Both ‘green’ and ‘non-green’ consumers think that consuming responsibly is still a time-consuming, economically disadvantageous and stressful activity. However, the negative perception of any personal inconvenience related with purchasing eco-friendly products plays a different role between the two consumer groups. On the one hand, it contributes to reinforce ‘non-green’ consumers’ unwillingness to try eco-friendly alternatives. On the other hand, it mainly occurs for ‘green’ consumers inside the point of sale (e.g., eco-friendly products are not always available or they come in a narrow range), thus explaining why these consumers often show an inconsistency between their stated (green) intentions and their actual (not always green) purchase behavior.
Marketers, policy makers, and organizations may use the results of our study to foster eco-friendly product consumption, by developing communication programs that are specifically tailored toward ‘green’ and ‘non-green’ consumers. For example, the concern for the environmental consequences of purchasing and consuming products is relevant only for ‘green’ consumers, whereas this argument should be ignored when addressing ‘non-green’ consumers. When addressing ‘green’ consumers, companies may develop co-branded partnerships with pro-environmental organizations (as Kimberly Clark and WWF did) to address active green members with tailored marketing campaigns. The content of this communication should focus on the amount of natural resources that consumers may save by purchasing eco-friendly alternatives. For instance, Small Steps has developed a ‘Tree Calculator’ Tool to calculate the specific number of trees and amount of CO2 and water an individual or a family may save by purchasing one or more packs of eco-friendly tissue paper products.
Furthermore, consumers’ perceptions of the personal inconvenience of purchasing eco-friendly products reduces both ‘green’ and ‘non-green’ consumers’ eco-friendly products purchase intention and behavior. Unless market failures are corrected, both ‘green’ and ‘non-green’ consumers will not be able to buy responsibly. Hence, one class of public policy initiatives should focus on ‘economic policies’, such as ‘getting the prices right’ or using tax instruments to adjust for environmental impacts and other externalities not reflected in market prices. Additionally, and more importantly, when addressing ‘non-green’ consumers, marketers should seek to increase ‘non-green’ consumers’ intention to buy eco-friendly products through reducing their perceptions of eco-friendly products as ineffective substitutes of conventional goods. Conversely, when addressing ‘green’ consumers, companies should enhance consumers’ perception of eco-friendly products accessibility and awareness inside the store. In this regard, smart phone technology (e.g., GoodGuide app) may provide ‘green’ consumers with real-time information about the presence of eco-friendly products inside the store while they are shopping.
In conclusion, the diffusion of eco-friendly products in the market strongly depends on consumers acceptance of these products. Different consumer segments may be motivated to opt for eco-friendly alternatives for different reasons. Our research aimed at developing knowledge about the differences in these motivations across two consumer segments: ‘green’ and ‘non-green’ consumers. This knowledge is essential to build tailored versus standardized communication strategies when addressing one specific consumer group or different groups simultaneously.
This article was originally published in the Journal of Business Ethics (2016).
[su_pullquote align=”right”]By Sylvie BORAU[/su_pullquote]
The negative effects of exposure to advertising female models on women’s self-esteem and body satisfaction are now well known. But a new negative effect of advertising female models has been uncovered: they can be perceived as real sexual competitors by female consumers and trigger indirect aggression.
Female advertising models are highly physically attractive as well as ultra-thin, digitally-edited, and portrayed in a sexually provocative manner (for example, with pouting lips and arching hips). As a result, they represent formidable competitors. Of course, women know that they are very unlikely to meet these unreal threatening competitors in real life. But this knowledge does not stop them from considering these virtual models like real sexual competitors. Recent research I conducted with Jean-François Bonnefon from Toulouse School of Economics, investigated the consequences of this imaginary competition.
In a first series of studies, we asked 452 female respondents to answer online questionnaires. Female respondents were first exposed to the picture of either an ideal model (highly physically attractive, very thin, and adopting a sexually provocative attitude) or a non-ideal model (moderately attractive, average size, and with a non-provocative attitude). Then respondents answered some questions related to their reactions to the model. Results showed that women exposed to the ideal model expressed more mate-guarding jealousy (e.g., they were worried that their mate would leave them for a woman like this model), they expressed more derogatory comments (such as bullying, fat-shaming, or slut-shaming), and they expressed more social exclusion of their imaginary rival (e.g., they wouldn’t be friends with a woman like this model). In sum, female viewers engage in an imaginary intrasexual competition against ideal advertising models, targeting them with the same aggressive strategies they would use toward real-life rivals.
We then ran an additional study to identify which physical characteristic triggers indirect aggression. Does the provocative attitude of the models or their thin body size activate these aggressive strategies? To answer that question, we cross-manipulated the body size of the model and her provocative attitude. That is, female respondents were either exposed to a thin and provocative, a thin and non-provocative, an average size and provocative, or an average size and non-provocative female model. We found that the provocative attitude of the models, and not their thin body size, was the characteristic that triggered viewers to engage in indirect aggression. This is an important result, given the attention that the media put on the models’ body size, rather than on her provocative posture.
But why is the provocative posture of the models more likely to trigger intrasexual competition and indirect aggression than their thin body size? This is surprising considering the current obsession of women and the media for thinness. Further analyses suggested that female viewers engage in these aggressive strategies because the provocative attitude of the model – and not her thin body size – communicates an intention to seduce men, an intention to elicit men’s sexual desire, and, potentially, an intention to poach men. As in daily life, a sexually provocative attitude communicates confidence about one’s sex appeal, as well as flirtatiousness, sexual availability, and promiscuity. No wonder women feel threatened by provocative female models: they represent a menace to their current or prospective romantic relationships.
In daily life, when facing a menace to their romantic relationships, women usually experience jealousy. Jealousy is an emotion that warns the individual that an action must be taken to protect their current or prospective mate from a potential rival. And indirect aggression is women’s main action against female rivals and mate poachers. It involves the use of derogation and social exclusion. Our research shows indeed that women engage in indirect aggression when they are exposed to provocative female models, and do so regardless of the body size of the model displaying the attitude.
So, when advertisers feature a sexually provocative female model in their advertisements, they insidiously promote a culture of female bullying based on slut-shaming and social exclusion. Indeed, we have seen that the mere exposure to a sexually charged and provocative model is enough to activate Intrasexual competition and indirect aggression, as if female viewers were exposed to real-life rivals. We can imagine then that repeated media exposure to such imaginary rivals surely reinforces patterns of indirect aggression way beyond what would be expected from daily interactions with actual women, for at least two reasons: First, the use of sexually provocative models in advertising is pervasive. Second, the level of sexual provocativeness of models in advertising far exceeds the level of flirtatiousness performed by women in daily life.
To sum up, our research suggests that the use of sexually provocative models needlessly reinforces and fosters a culture of indirect aggression among women, fueling the alarming trends of Intrasexual bullying and slut shaming. Considering the unrealistic number of sexually provocative models in the media, women might be frequently subjected to these bouts of Intrasexual competition.
To curb the detrimental impact of sexual provocativeness in advertising, it would be wise to contain its pervasiveness and to avoid the most vulnerable consumers to be overly exposed to such ads. Because exposure is inevitable though, we recommend educating young audiences about these unintended effects – as young audiences are both more targeted by sexual appeals and more vulnerable. We do not recommend eradicating sexual provocativeness from advertising though, as banning these advertisements would be tantamount to giving a politically correct and archaic representation of women. However, consumer-advocate organizations, media watchdogs, and concerned citizens have a large role to play, both for raising public awareness and for incentivizing companies to maintain responsible practices.
This article was originally published in Brand Quarterly Magazine (January 2018).
[su_pullquote align=”right”]By Jean-Marc Décaudin and Denis Lacoste[/su_pullquote]
Selling services requires a very different approach to selling products. Services are intangible, and they are often produced and consumed simultaneously. Services cannot be stocked. It’s very difficult to maintain consistent quality and the customer is involved in the production of the service, which isn’t the case for tangible goods.
Marketing specialists started to consider these differences in the 1980s. Two French researchers, Pierre Eiglier and Eric Langeard, created the concept of “Servuction”, a neologism created from the words Service and Production, and which underlines the need for a specific approach to managing non-material goods. Since then, much work has been done in the field of services marketing, echoing their growing role in wealth- and job-creation. The goal of the research is to help managers in the banking, air transport, rental, health and wellbeing and other sectors, to consider the specifics of consumption and production that are driven by the characteristics of the different services.
Research focussed in particular on the field of advertising communications. There are many questions to be put to marketers, the main one being: how do you communicate something that can’t be seen, touched, smelled, heard, or tasted? Advertisers also had to work out how to communicate an experience which is perceived differently by different customers and whose quality can’t be guaranteed to be identical in all places and at all times. Coming up with communication axes which rest on objective technical characteristics – for cars, computers, TVs – is relatively easy. It’s a lot harder to communicate the type of experience on offer in an amusement park, on a dating site, or even in a university.
So the issue facing advertisers is how to successfully express what a service is, to represent it to a potential client in a manner powerful enough to make him or her notice the brand, become interested, and want to try out the service. Specialists have identified five key strategies. Businesses are advised to communicate:
• About the consumer benefits (price and performance)
• About the customer (testimonies drawn from customer reviews)
• About the customer-facing staff (focus on skills, the quality of customer relations)
• About the hardware associated with the service (the quality of the planes for air transport, equipment and supplies for a diving club or a ski resort)
• About its corporate image with a focus on the company’s values and commitments
How well the strategies work has been very little investigated, and most studies have focussed on only one communication strategy, so their usefulness to advertisers is limited.
That’s why our research aimed to test the effectiveness of each of the various communication axes by exposing customers to a series of adverts, each using a different axis. The results show that the effectiveness of the advert is hugely dependent on the dominant axis.
In the two sectors under study (banking and tourism), the most effective adverts are those that emphasise the customer. It could be a laughing child riding the Mine Train in Disneyland, a family eating out together at McDonald’s or a happy couple moving into their first home thanks to a mortgage agreement. The presence of a customer in the advertising reassures the consumer because it causes them to identify with someone who appreciates the service. We know that customer reassurance is fundamental in the service sectors, where risk is perceived as being high. In both the sectors, emphasising the physical dimension of the service also seems to be a very effective strategy (although a little less so than the first). The three other advertising axes under study are of far more limited effect, either on one of the two sectors, or on a single effectiveness variable.
The results of this research are useful for businesses in the service sector as well as to advertisers, because they give them specific elements with which to create new campaigns. Care is nonetheless called for because the results could be different in a different cultural context, in a different advertising format, or in other sectors.
[su_spoiler title=”Methodology”]The study looked at 50 press adverts in two markedly different sectors: banking (25 adverts) and tourism (25 adverts). Each ad chosen uses one of the communication axes (competitive advantage, contact staff, customers, physical dimension, brand image). In each of the two sectors, 5 different adverts using the same axis were used in order to limit the influence of creativity on the interviewees’ assessment of the product. The sample was made up of 249 respondents who were questioned online. Each respondent evaluated 25 adverts. 1245 evaluations are therefore available: 620 for banking and 625 for tourism. For each advert, a series of 22 questions were asked to measure attention level, how interesting the ad was, understanding the message, the level of curiosity sparked, attitude to the advert and the brand, and finally the impact of the ad on purchasing intentions.[/su_spoiler]
This research was published in the Journal of Marketing communications (2016) under the title “Services advertising: Showcase the Customer!” ».
[su_pullquote align=”right”]By Sylvie Borau and Jean-François Bonnefon[/su_pullquote]
The new mayor of London is planning to ban commercials that depict female models who are too thin or whose bodies are not realistic, but the question of how effective “natural” models are in advertising remains open. Even though an increasing number of publicity campaigns show models with fuller, more realistic figures, these remain few and far between. Why would this be the case?
While commercials for cosmetic products intended for women traditionally feature models with ideal beauty, some brands, like Dove for instance, have started to adjust their communication strategy by presenting more realistic women with fuller figures and less artificial editing of the image.
Choosing a model for a commercial: an ethical and economic issue
Presenting models, whether ideal or natural, poses two significant problems: the first is ethical and the second economic. On the one hand, idealized images of female beauty impose an unreachable standard and can have negative effects on the psychological wellbeing of women, for example in terms of body image anxiety. On the other, selecting an ideal model or a natural one also poses the question of the commercial’s economic impact.
From the perspective of the advertiser, like the creative agency, the choice of relying less on stereotypical, edited images, or even abandoning them completely, will be based mainly on commercial effectiveness criteria and probably less on issues surrounding social responsibility. As a result, it is essential to evaluate more precisely how women react to these natural models and their commercial effectiveness. While many studies have looked into the ability of an idealized model to generate anxiety, less attention has been paid to the ability of a natural model to also trigger negative emotions. However, if the reference point for female consumers is models representing ideal beauty, natural-looking models may be considered out-of-place in the media environment and thus elicit repulsion, unpleasant surprise, or even disgust.
Body anxiety and repulsion
The aim of this study was to compare the reactions of women to magazine advertisements containing either an ideal model or a natural model, both in terms of affective reactions, such as body anxiety and repulsion, and in terms of commercial impact, including their impressions of the advertisement, attitude to the brand, and interest in buying. Half of the sample subjects were shown the traditional ideal model used in commercials for cosmetic products, while the other half was presented with a natural model: a woman with a more realistic body, non-stereotypical physical traits, and no editing of the image.
By focusing more specifically on two negative emotions, anxiety regarding the appearance of one’s body and the repulsion generated by the models, we put forward two hypotheses: first, that natural models reduce body anxiety among readers, particularly those with a high body mass index (BMI), and that this has a positive effect on the commercial’s impact, and second that natural models increase the feeling of repulsion that women feel, with a negative effect on the campaign’s effectiveness.
Concerning the effect of exposure to different models in terms of negative emotions, it was found that the natural model did not decrease body anxiety among the women. This result could be explained by the fact that the respondents already reported a very high level of anxiety; it would be difficult for this level to be affected further by exposure to the images. However, the natural model generated repulsion, even more so among the women with high BMIs. These women who are very unsatisfied with their appearance probably project the feeling of repulsion that they feel towards their own body onto the natural model.
Concerning the effect of these negative emotions, the results showed that body anxiety increased the effectiveness of the commercial; in other words, the more a woman is anxious about her appearance, the more she will tend to like the advertisement and the brand, and the more likely she will be to want to buy the product. This positive effect of anxiety on the commercial’s impact is rather counter-intuitive, since negative emotions generally have a negative effect on advertising performance. The other result is more logical, showing that repulsion had a negative outcome on effectiveness.
Reconciling ethics and commercial impact
In short, these results are not too encouraging if we consider the divide that exists between public policies that aim to encourage the use of natural models and advertising professionals who are more concerned with the economic effectiveness of this type of strategy, and who are therefore interested in advertising with ideal models.
What would we need to do to counter this contradiction and reconcile ethical considerations with economics? If the aim is both to be effective and not generate negative emotions that may either increase effectiveness through anxiety, or decrease effectiveness through repulsion, an alternative could be to dispense with model images, whether idealized or natural. A number of brands have adopted this third approach, particularly in the area of drugstore products. This type of strategy, which is more respectful of the consumer’s wellbeing, requires the development of advertising discourse that is more informative, shifting the message from emotion more to rationale.
Further studies could help to refine these conclusions, for example by looking at categories of products other than cosmetics, by presenting other types of models, or by calling on other reactions rather than emotions, such as the credibility that the readers assign to the model and to the advertisement.
[su_spoiler title=”Methodology”]A survey was carried out including 400 French women aged between 18 and 35 years, representative of the population of France in terms of BMI, education level, socio-professional category, and marital status. The responders were asked to look at a women’s magazine online, in which there was an advertisement for a cosmetic product illustrated either with an ideal model or a natural model. They were then asked to complete a questionnaire.[/su_spoiler]
[su_note note_color=”#f8f8f8″]Sylvie Borau has been a professor in marketing at Toulouse Business School since 2013. Before that, she worked for 8 years in various research institutes, particularly in Canada. Her thesis, as part of her doctorate obtained from the IAE of Toulouse in 2013, led her to win the 2014 Sphinx thesis award and to be a finalist for the AFM-FNEGE prize of the French National Marketing Association and the Foundation for Management Education. Her research work focuses on consumer behavior and more specifically on physical attractiveness in advertising. In 2016, she published an article in the International Journal of Advertising, entitled: “The advertising performance of non-ideal female models as a function of viewers’ body mass index: a moderated mediation analysis of two competing affective pathways” in collaboration with Jean-François Bonnefon, CNRS Director of Research at the Toulouse School of Economics.[/su_note]